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With this population growth, there was a correlated growth to the number of larger cities also being constructed in this time. A large portion of the population still lived or worked in manors , but urban settlements were also on the rise [See Pryor 2006, 199].
The Cloisters Cross is made entirely out of morse ivory (walrus tusk), is 23 inches tall, and has an arm span 14.5 inches wide [See Parker 1994, 13]. The cross was most likely carved with such intricacy by first drawing the design in ink, and then by using a very small chisel to trace the design [See Ritchie 1975, 16].The New York Met purchased the cross in 1960 where it remains today.The Christian crusades took place during the time the cross was carved, with the third crusade in 1189 lasting to 1192 and the fourth crusade called for in 1198 and lasting from late 1199 to 1204 [See Setton 1962, 183].The crusades were battles fought by European Christians who were attempting to halt Muslim expansion into territory seen as theirs.The crusades were sparked by Pope Urban II when during a sermon he said, "Whoever for devotion alone, not to gain honour or money, goes to Jerusalem to liberate the Church of God can substitute this journey for all penance" [See Tyerman 2004, 12].